Make your own free website on

Harmonus Dumond

Timothy Murphy story


Revolutionary War Pension File: Number R20173

State Of Ohio

County Of Washington

On this 13th day of August 1834, personally appeared before me the subscriber and justice of the peace in & for the county of Washington and state aforesaid, David Freemoyer, a resident of the said county and state aforesaid aged seventy three years the 28th day of February last, who being first duly sworn according to law, doth on his oath make the following declaration in order to obtain the benefit of the act of congress passed June 7th 1832.

That he entered the service of the United States under the following named officers and served as herein stated towit. That in May 1778 affiant was residing in Albany county, then a frontier county of the state of New York on a creek called Cobleskill, a branch of the Schoharie River, when a party of Indians consisting of Mohawk's, Seneca's and Anaquaqua's besides some Tories, principally from the Unandilla and Anaquaqua settlements of Indians on the north branch of the Susquehanna River, having penetrated into the settlement, where affiant lived. Capt. Christopher Brown of the militia with his whole company was ordered out, of which affiant was one, (he, affiant, having been enrolled on this occasion for the first time). A company of continental troops, was also detailed and sent from Fort Clinton which was situated on Schoharie River about nine miles from the settlement in which affiant lived, to go against the Indians, which company was commanded by a Capt. Patrick. Capt. Patrick's company joined affiant's company at the house of George Warner who resided on Cobleskill aforesaid, 31st day of May of said year 1778.

Just before the junction of the two companies, Indians had been seen running across the fields backwards and forwards, which was done no doubt for the purpose of decoying affiant's company into the woods, where the Indians would be lying in ambush for them, as it afterwards proved to be the case, for as soon Capt. Patrick's company arrived, the officers sent out three men as scouts & when but a very little way in the woods, they were fired on by one of them shot through the body. Nevertheless being so near to the house, he got in and afterward recovered.

Affiant states that as soon as they heard the guns fired, they all ran in great haste out in pursuit of the enemy, being entirely ignorant of their number and met the scouts in the edge of the woods returning and a parcel of the enemy in close pursuit. Affiant states that they immediately encountered the fire of the enemy who kept firing and retreating for at least a mile, until they fell back upon their main body, who was commanded by Colonel Brandt. Affiant states that they were in such hot pursuit of the Indians that they were precipitated upon the main body of them, before they were aware of it, who were lying in ambush behind a small knoll, of some 200-300 yards in length and about 4 feet in height. A singular freak of nature this, if natural; but being on a level gravelly spot of ground and of such equal height and width and withall, so straight from one end to the other, that affiant thinks it was the work of some ancient race of people long since extinct and at present unknown to the world (if ever) thrown up for defense in some of their wars with hostile forces.

This knoll or ridge was covered with timber, but not so large as the timber on the ground surrounding, owing probably to the fact, that the knoll was not so rich. There was no ditch on either side, but on the side the Indians lay the surface of the earth near the knoll seemed to affiant, when viewing the ground since the battle, to be somewhat lower than the opposite side. Behind the knoll the Indians had driven stakes into the ground, fastened a stick across the top, on which they had put pieces of blankets and stuck a hat or cap thereon, in order to deceive affiant's party. An excellent device too, as affiant states, that many in their zeal to destroy the enemy, and not being able to distinguish well for the smoke occasioned by the firing, were deceived and fired at the supposed bodies of the Indians, while the real Indians were lying or stooped below their imaginary men and firing upon affiant's party.

As soon as Capt. Patrick (who was in advance of his men and a brave officer) discovered the situation of the enemy, he directed his men who had fixed bayonets on their muskets to charge upon the enemy, but before his order could be executed, he was shot dead and one of his lieutenants was killed at the same instant. The death of Capt. Patrick and his lieutenant so damped the ardor of the Americans and the enemy was found to be so much superior in numbers being about 300 or 350, while that of the Americans was only about 200, Capt. Brown, ordered a retreat and they retreated with great precipitation to Fort Clinton before spoken of. The enemy only made prisoner the ensign belonging to Captain Patrick's company, who they kept about two years before he was exchanged, when he returned home and reported that the enemy in this engagement was 350 strong and had lost 36 killed. Affiant states that affiant's party lost 21 men killed including officers and had 9 wounded. That the enemy laid waste the whole settlement on Cobleskill, by burning houses, barns, stables and shooting such horses, as they could not conveniently catch to take away with them.

That he remained voluntarily in the service of the United States until in September or October (he thinks) of said year, when he was sent from Fort Clinton in a company of rangers, about 32 in number and placed under command of a Captain John Ditz, and attached to a regiment commanded by Col. Butler, sent on an expedition against the towns of the Unandilla and Anaquaqua Indians. That the Indians had left their towns when Col. Butler arrived, leaving only 2 very old squaws, who affiant's party left in a hut together with some provision to sustain them, until they might be taken away, or provided for, by the tribe to which they belonged. Col. Butler, burnt all their buildings, save the one just spoken of, and destroyed their orchard and a large quantity of corn, after which they returned to Fort Clinton again, where affiant remained in the service stationed in Fort Clinton until the latter end of June 1779, under Capt. Brown aforesaid Lieutenant Borst and Ensign Nicholas Warner.

That the fort was commanded by Col. Peter Vrooman. Affiant was employed in guarding the fort aforesaid, which contained as well women and children, who had taken refuge there from the savage ferocity of the enemy, as soldiers for the protection of the fort and the inhabitants generally. Affiant being at that time amazingly fleet and a good marksman, as well as woodsman for one of his years, was frequently while in the service sent out as a spy or scout to range the country round about, which he performed faithfully, sometimes skirmishing with small parties of Indians, the relation of which would swell this narrative to too great a length to admit of insertion. That affiant was discharged about the last of June 1779, after having served about one year and about one month, but whether he received a discharge or not he does not now recollect. Affiant in this thirteen months service, knew, in addition to the officers already named, Col. Seeley, Capt. Hagar, and Lieutenants John Lawyer, John Baker and Ditts or Ditz, the 5 last named, were militia officers, as affiant believes. The names or number of any continental or militia regiment with which he served he does not now recollect, but believes the regiment commanded by Col. Butler was called the 4th Pennsylvania regiment.

That an expedition being meditated against the six nations of Indians, affiant volunteered for the campaign immediately after his discharge in the latter part of June 1779 aforesaid, and was sent under a Capt. or Major Parr of the continental troops, who commanded a company of rangers, and was marched from Fort Clinton aforesaid and joined Col. Butler's regiment at what was then called the middle fort on the Scoharie River, and marched by way of Cobleskill creek, thence through cherry valley to Otsego lake, at which place they were joined by General Clinton, with a large body of the American army, finding the water too low to float their boats down to Tioga point. General Clinton ordered a dam erected across the mouth of the lake, which caused the water soon to raise to the height of the dam, and having everything in readiness they opened a passage through the dam for the water to flow, which raised the river so as to enable them to embark and float down to Tioga point, at which place in a few days they were joined by General Sullivan the commander in chief of the expedition. The two divisions then united and marched up what was called the Cayuga or western branch of the Susquehanna River, which led them immediately into the Indian country.

That after having routed a few small bodies of the enemy, while on their march, they found the main body of the enemy collected near new town well fortified, composed of Indians and Tories, who they defeated and routed after a somewhat obstinate resistance on the part of the enemy, who escaped across the Cayoga River, and made for the lake of that name. That General Sullivan, with his army pursued the enemy to the Cayuga lake, where General Sullivan detached a Lieutenant Boyd with this affiant and some 18 or 20 men including two friendly Indians, who went as pilots, and sent them in the night across the river at its outlet from the lake to ascertain, if the enemy were not lying in ambush in a large cedar swamp on the opposite side for the purpose of attacking General Sullivan's army as they crossed the river.

Their orders were to cross over, (which they did, on rafts made of cedar poles, tied together with leatherwood bark) and examine the banks along. If the enemy were not discovered, they were then to penetrate the swamp and go through, which was not more than from one quarter to a half mile wide, and to go to a certain high knob, which was a quarter of a mile or more beyond the swamp, upon which knowl the detachment was to lie concealed on the next day, and watch the movements of the enemy, in case any were there, and the succeeding night they were to return to General Sullivan's camp. Affiant states, that they crossed as aforesaid, in the night, examined the banks, made no discoveries of the enemy, passed through the swamp also without making any, and passed on to the high knob before spoken of, where they remained until the next morning, all the next day, and the next night, (as Lieutenant Boyd refused to return the second night as he was ordered to do) until the second morning after they had crossed the river, when the unfortunate Boyd determined to return to Sullivan.

Declaring that there were no Indians there, as they had had scouts out all the day before, who had not been able to make any discoveries of them. Two scouts had been out, but the enemy had not left the swamp, into which the scouts did not penetrate, and of course, they had made no discoveries. Against this rash proposition of the lieutenant, affiant declares every man (he believes), remonstrated urging upon him the danger of returning by day in case any of the enemy should be lying in wait because if they had left a force sufficient to annoy General Sullivan in crossing the river, it must be a large party, and of course much superior to the lieutenants detachment, and in that event being between them and our crossing we must certainly be destroyed; but all in vain, the ill fated lieutenant, declared that there were no Indians there, and having determined to return that morning, no entreaty availed to shake him from his purpose, so about 8 o'clock the lieutenant started with the detachment to the swamp, where they commenced marching buy single file. This affiant and one Timothy Murphy in front, Lieutenant Boyd in the rear, when they had passed greater part of the swamp along a path leading through; the enemy lying in ambush for affiant's party (having discovered their trail no doubt the day before and expecting their return) commenced firing upon their rear and instantaneously thereafter fired all along the two lines they had formed on each side of the path extending beyond affiant and Murphy, at the same time closing the extremes of the two lines, whereby the whole detachment were entirely surrounded and hemmed in by the enemy. Affiant and Murphy upon the first fire of the enemy in front, dropped and lay flat on the ground, to avoid the effects of their fire, and so continued to lay until the firing had nearly cease, when they sprang to their feet and fortunately for affiant and Murphy the morning was foggy, and amidst the fog and smoke occasioned by the firing of the enemy in front, affiant and Murphy were enabled to escape through the line of the enemy unhurt, running against and knocking over several Indians, as they broke through their lines.

Affiant and Murphy kept together and holding a consultation as they ran, agreed to run around the Cayuga lake, although a distance of about ninety two miles, to reach General Sullivan again. As Murphy declared (which affiant knew well to be true) that it was out of the question to attempt an escape by recrossing the river again, as the enemy would certainly be upon them before they could reach the shore. Affiant and Murphy ran about four or five miles, when they were overtaken by five large dogs, the Indians had set after them. Three of these dogs were very severe and would take hold in an instant, the other two would not bite, but would follow and bay them. Two of these dogs ran up to Murphy and seized and lacerated him much, before he could kill them, which he succeeded in doing with his tomahawk.

While Murphy was engaged with the two dogs, affiant was engaged with the 3rd dog, who had seized affiant just at the time the others had seized Murphy, but affiant was not so well prepared by far, for the fight as his companion was, although affiant had but one to contend with, while his companion had two; for affiant had lost his tomahawk at the time he fell down to avoid the fire of the Indians in the swamp and he and Murphy thought it most prudent and had agreed, when they discovered the dogs coming after them, not to shoot the dogs for fear some of the Indians, who they were certain were near them, might come upon them while their guns were empty and excepting his rifle affiant had no weapon to defend himself with, other than a very thin case knife ground sharp at the point, affiant having sometime before lost his butcher knife.

The dog first seized affiant by the fleshy part of the thigh, in front, and near his crotch. Affiant struck at him with his knife and occasionally with his fist but did not hurt the dog materially, he eventually succeeded in disengaging the dog's hold of his thigh, however, not until he had torn it considerably. The dog next seized affiant by the side of the leg and sunk one of his tushes deep into his leg just by the side of the bone; after loosing the dogs hold of the leg, he seized affiant by the throat and held on, until from the loss of wind occasioned by affiant choking him severely, he was compelled to let go, when he dropped to the ground on his fore feet and stood close by affiant an instant, gasping for breath. In this situation, affiant made an underhanded thrust at the dogs flank, which struck low and penetrated into the intestines, when affiant making a considerable effort (considering his exhausted state) and ripped the dog open across to the back bone and let out his entrails notwithstanding this, the dog made another spring at affiant's neck, but from exhaustion and the wound just given him, only sprang high enough to reach affiant's breast, upon which he inflicted a wound of some three or four inches in length, when he fell down and died. Just at this instant Murphy having finished the two that had attacked him, came to affiant's assistance. Glad would affiant have been, after he was in contact with the dog, to have been able to shoot him The consequence of the enemy coming upon him and he with an empty gun, he would willingly have resigned; but then it was too late, he could not disengage himself from the dog, and his knife was too weak in the blade, that he was afraid to make a heavy plunge, for fear it would break, and sorely indeed did he repent not shooting the dog while it had been in his power.

Immediately after the conclusion of the fight, Murphy discovered standing at a small distance and pointed out to affiant, Captain Yoke, a friendly Indian of the Stockbridge tribe, who had went out as one of the pilots on this excursion. Simultaneously, with discovering Capt. Yoke, affiant and Murphy discovered about 40 naked Indians, within 50 yards of them, all with tomahawks in their hands, affiant thinks, not a rifle amongst them, having left them to make the better speed, no doubt, expecting to find affiant and those they pursued, with no guns, or empty if any, when they would be able, with the assistance of their dogs to deprive us of, or take our scalps. Here had affiant and Murphy not been wounded and fresh as when the race commenced, the Indians would have paid dearly for their temerity, in leaving their guns behind, but situated as affiant and Murphy were, wounded much by the dogs they had killed, already much fatigued, by running and their fight with the dogs, and having a great way to travel before they could reach camp, and withal two dogs and about 40 Indians close at their heels, prudence forbid any other course for them to pursue, but, to seek safety in flight and reach the army they had left with all possible speed. Affiant and Murphy therefore instantly, on discovering the Indian so close, put off at top of their speed and ran on, followed by the dogs and Indians, about 15 miles, as affiant supposes, from where they had had the encounter with the dogs. When affiant and Murphy believing the Indians to be some distance behind, had leisure and shot the remaining two dogs. To this place affiant thinks the enemy pursued him and his companion and gave up further pursuit.

Affiant and Murphy went on until in the night sometime, when being much fatigued, they slept out of the path to one side to rest, and to observe if any of the enemy passed. After sitting and resting sometime, they discovered Capt. Yoke passing along, who they had not seen before, since the time they started when the Indians were so close upon them. They knowing it to be Yoke, hailed him and from that time went on in company all three together to where they had left General Sullivan encamped, which they reached the next morning about 8 o'clock. When they arrived, General Sullivan had with his whole army crossed the river. Whereupon affiant, Murphy and their Indian ally constructed a log raft immediately, crossed the river and over took the army, just as they were engaged in collecting for burial the bodies of the scouts killed the previous morning and putting together the body of Lieutenant Boyd, which the enemy had severed in five pieces. The head cut off, the body then split in twain and then each half cut into again. Here affiant and Murphy had their wounds dressed, for the first time after their infliction, except the wound on the side of affiant's leg, which gave affiant so much pain in travelling the day before that he was compelled to do something if possible to relieve it. Which he done by killing a striped squirrel and putting the brains of the squirrel on the wound and fastening them on with the skin thereof. Affiant's wounds were so bad and disabled him so much that he was placed on a packhorse and rode for 6 days. In due time General Sullivan reached the Indian settlements on the Genisee River, but finding no enemy to contend with, he destroyed all their buildings, orchards, gardens and their immense crops of corn. After which General Sullivan returned by the same route again to the Susquehanna River, thence down the same to Harrisburg, PA. Thence to Easton, PA where affiant and such of the rangers as were yet living were discharged and ordered to return to Fort Clinton again. Where they arrived about the last of October 1779, making in all which he served this tour four months.

Affiant did not receive any written discharge for this tour that he remembers of. A letter was sent by them to Col. Vrooman who was in command at Fort Clinton, stating the particulars of the expedition, and that the rangers (of which affiant was one) had acquitted themselves well. In this campaign affiant knew Generals Sullivan, Clinton and Maxwell, Col. Butler, Major Parr, Lieutenant Boyd and many other officers whose names he has now forgotten.

That about the first of may 1780, affiant still residing in Albany county, New York, enlisted under Capt. Cannon or Kennon for the term of one year and was attached to a regiment commanded by the said Col. Peter Vrooman and stationed at the middle fort on the Schoharie River, that affiant was appointed and served as orderly sergeant of the company to which he was attached during the whole term of his enlistment. That he served during the season of 1780 and until the expiration of his tour in May 1781, mostly as a ranger, generally having command of scouting parties. Sent out to scour the country, for the protection of the fort and safety of the settlement.

That sometime in the fall of the year 1780 a large body of British, Indians and Tories, from Niagara, under command of Sir John Johnson, penetrated the country, meditating an attack on the middle fort, it being the strongest and of most consequence to the enemy to possess. The enemy marched by the upper fort without molesting it, which they could easily have taken, as that fort was weak, being only a picket fort, with two small pieces of artillery. As soon as the enemy passed the fort, the garrison perceiving it to be the object of the enemy to take either the middle or lower fort by surprise, they fired off one of their pieces of artillery to alarm the middle fort, which was only about four miles off. This gun they heard very plainly at the middle fort, and immediately Col. Vrooman sent out a detachment of about 100 riflemen of whom affiant was one, under command of Capt. Woolsey of the continental or state troops, but who just happened, there by accident (as affiant believes) he not belonging to the fort.

This detachment were to go, with all possible speed to the upper fort, to ascertain the cause of the alarm, and then act as circumstances might require. As they were proceeding along in haste by a route not usually traveled, affiant voluntarily took the place of one Jacob Franks who was placed as a flank, guard on the left of the company. Franks was an intimate and particular friend of affiant and affiant knowing him to be unwell took his place on the left as aforesaid. While they were passing through a large pasture, in which the cattle and horses belonging to the fort were usually pastured (this pasture was very large and considerably grownup with willows and other bushes, growing about in bunches). Affiant proceeding expeditiously and cautiously along, discovered in front of him 5 or 6 Indians running very closely together in the same direction affiant was moving. Affiant took deliberate aim and fired at the bunch, for they were running as before stated in very close order and affiant noticed immediately after, that his shot produced considerable confusion among the squad. Affiant does not therefore doubt, that he killed one of them, as it was the only gun fired at the enemy there, and an Indian, was found a few days afterward lying dead with a rifle and knapsack at a spring near where affiant fired.

As soon as affiant fired (as was his duty) he ran in and joined his company, by the time the enemy made their appearance in sight and so numerous were they, that Capt. Woolsey ordered a retreat to the fort, which was effected without any loss, although the enemy closely pursued firing many shots at them, but fortunately none took effect. The enemy then invested the fort and threw three bombs at it, one of them only falling into it, which however done no particular injury. Sir John Johnson then sent two men with a flag of truce, it was supposed to summon the fort to surrender, and contrary to the order of Col. Vrooman (whose valor the men in the fort placed but little reliance upon). The man bearing the flag was shot when about 140 yards of the fort by Timothy Murphy the same person, with whom affiant had suffered so much, in the unfortunate expedition under Lieutenant Boyd. The other person ran back, without attempting to proceed further with the flag. The enemy succeeded only in killing one man in the fort, this was a Samuel Rennels or Reynolds, who went on top of, one of the buildings in the fort, and there foolishly and indecently exposed his hind parts to the enemy in contempt of them, and there remained contrary to the demonition of those in the fort, until one of the enemy under cover of some sprouts, put up from bushes and saplings, that had been previously cut off, crept near enough to shoot and fired at him, the ball just breaking the skin across above one of his eyebrows. This stunned Reynolds and he fell off the house, on the pavement or some stone below on his head and broke his neck.

It was afterwards said that Sir John Johnson having discovered Reynolds contempt of them, with a spyglass, gave a guinea, half johannes or some gold coin to an expert marksman to shoot Reynolds, which was accomplished in the manner before related. But for the truth of this story affiant cannot vouch. Col. Vrooman, then commenced firing at the enemy, who were some 400 - 500 yards off, with some small brass cannon, when the enemy marched off, not however without getting a good warming before they left the neighborhood. Seeing the route they took and knowing that the enemy had to head a long and deep ravine after leaving the fort, the road passing very near the same place back again after heading the ravine. Captain Woolsey aforesaid with about 100 rifle men including affiant was dispatched to a certain place, from which the enemy could be much annoyed without endangering Capt. Woolsey's men.

This was an elevated spot of ground, on which had been erected a block house (but at this time not in use) which commanded the road on the opposite side of the deep ravine, by which road the enemy must off necessity pass, and where it would be impossible for them to cross the ravine to drive Capt. Woolsey from his position and impracticable to return by the road, being one and a 1/4 miles. This place Capt. Woolsey and his men reached in time, from which they fired three rounds at the enemy, when they retreated to the fort again, as the enemy instantly started a large detachment, back by the way of the road to dislodge them, which detachment Capt. Woolsey did not think it prudent to wait for. They followed Capt. Woolsey to the fort but on firing a cannon shot at them they again retired. In this engagement across the ravine, affiant believes they killed many of the enemy, as on viewing the ground soon afterwards he seen much blood in and about the road and a very large fresh dug grave, near by, where they had buried their dead, but what number they killed affiant did not know, as they did not open the grave.


Revolutionary War Pension File: Number R20173

State Of Ohio

County Of Washington

Previous to the enemy attack on the middle fort, they set fire to and burned a mill on the Schoharie River, which ran 6 pair of stone, owned by John Baker. This mill the enemy had made frequent attempts to burn before, but did not succeed until the present time. After this the enemy passed down the Schoharie and then up the Mohawk River, laying waste and destroying everything before them and returned to Niagara again. When affiant completed his one year's service, as orderly sergeant, he was regularly discharged, but who signed it, affiant does not recollect, but remembers that about 1790 he had some pieces of it, the same having worn out where folded, but what became of them he does not now recollect. In the course of the this last years service, affiant knew in addition to the officers already named Col. Seely, Captains Hagar, John Seely and David Baker and Lieut. Ditts or Ditz, besides others at present not recollected.

That in the year 1781, affiant still residing at Albany county in the state of New York, in the month of May, volunteered under Col. Vrooman for a term of eight months and served as orderly sergeant in a company commanded by Capt. Christopher Brown and was stationed at the middle fort on the Schoharie River, that he served principally as a ranger, having generally when out, (as in the last year) command of a parcel of scouts. That sometime in the year 1781 (affiant thinks it was) the time affiant cannot now recollect, affiant was in an engagement under Col. Willet, with the enemy under command of Col. Brandt who had taken a number of whites prisoner, on tripes hill, a place not far from the Mohawk River, and Col. Willet with about 400 men had been sent in pursuit of Brandt, who he surprised and defeated at a place, called Turlock or Turlach, on a water emptying into the Mohawk River, killing many of the enemy, number not now known. But before Col. Willet succeeded in recapturing the prisoners, the enemy had put them to death. In this engagement affiant received a slight wound on the left side, just above the hip by a rifle ball.

That sometime in October of said year 1781 the country was penetrated by a large body of British, Indians and Tories, commanded (affiant thinks) by a Major Ross; that they commenced hostilities on the Mohawk River, whence an express was immediately sent from Col. Willet, the commander of Fort Plain, on the Mohawk River, to Col. Vrooman who had in command the three forts on the Schoharie River for assistance. That detachments were and rendezvoused at the middle fort and were marched (affiant being one of the number) under Capt. John Titts, Ditts or Ditz to Fort Plain; where they joined Colonel Willet, who marched on in quest of the enemy and come in contact with them at a place known by the name of Johnstown. Affiant states that when they discovered the enemy, they were engaged in killing and destroying cattle, that a sharp skirmish ensued, which continued a considerable time. Col. Willet gained a partial victory over the enemy and night coming on they retreated and marched up to the top of a very high ridge and encamped.

That Col. Willet encamped at Johnstown and early on the following morning marched in pursuit of the enemy, when after pursuing them affiant thinks about 12 miles they overtook them, with whom they had a considerable skirmish, in which several of the enemy were killed and wounded. Some of Col. Willetis men were also wounded, but none killed. The enemy retreated and Col. Willet ordered Capt. Titts or Ditts, with his company of rifle men, to which affiant was attached on this excursion, together with 50 or 60 friendly Indians, of the Oneida tribe, commanded by Col. Lovey, an Indian officer of the same tribe, to pursue the enemy at least to Canada Creek. With the expectation of being able to annoy them in crossing said creek, which they did and overtook part of the enemy while they were making their way over the creek, the crossing of which was attended with some difficulty, as the water was at that time rather deep to ford. That affiant's party fired on the enemy several times and killed a number of them, the amount affiant cannot now recollect, if he ever knew. But amongst the slain affiant thinks there was a Major Butler, who had taken an active part in the British service against the frontiers of New York, and who had signalized himself for his savage barbarity. That affiant was then marched back to fort plain and thence to the middle fort again.

That after having been at the middle fort affiant thinks but a few days, a party of the enemy near 200 strong, were discovered near the upper fort, who had killed several families, that affiant with about 30 rangers and 10 to 12 militia were sent from the middle fort, to the upper fort, at which place affiant with the rangers aforesaid, were attached to Col. Woolsey's company of riflemen, and with a company of militia commanded by Capt. Jacob Hager, marched under command of Major Woolsey in pursuit of the enemy and overtook them at a place known at the time by the name of Harperfield, at the head of the Delaware River, where they had an engagement with the enemy of whom they killed and wounded several the number not now recollected, that of affiant's party only two were killed and seven wounded, as well as affiant recollects. That affiant was marched to the middle fort again, where he was discharged sometime in January 1782 after having served his term of eight months as orderly sergeant the time for which he volunteered. Whether affiant received any written discharge from the service for this last tour he does not now recollect.

That affiant knew in the last campaign, Majors Woolsey, Vonalstine, and Tygart and Captains Woolsey, Capt. and Lieut. Loop, Col. Willet, Col. Peterey (or Peteree), Major Fader, Captain Pateree and a Lieutenant of the same name besides others whose names affiant has now forgotten.

That sometime in may 1782 affiant still continuing to reside in Albany county, New York, enlisted under Capt. Stenbrough or a Capt. of some such name, for a term of nine months. That affiant with 27 others constituting a part of a rifle company was attached to a part of a company of state or continental troops, commanded by Capt. Harrison, and was again stationed at the middle fort on the Schoharie River under command of Col. Peter Vrooman, at which fort were also stationed 2 companies of militia commanded by Capt. David Baker and John Ceiley.

That affiant was appointed and served as orderly sergeant of the company to which he was attached during this nine months tour. That affiant served principally as a ranger having frequently command (as theretofore) of scouting parties, which induced affiant and others to believe that a body of Indians were encamped in some place not far distant. That some of the scouts from Fort Clinton, ascertained that this party of Indians were in camp on the top of a ridge, near Cobleskill creek and immediately informed Col. Vrooman of the fact. Whereupon Col. Vrooman ordered affiant to select a few of the best men in the fort and go by night and ascertain if possible the strength of the enemy. That in obedience to this command affiant chose Abraham Baker, Henry Hagar, William Mackindice and Adam Folk, men in whose bravery and skill in Indian warfare; affiant thought he could confide.

That affiant with his party set out on this expedition directly after dark, having about 10 miles to travel, in order to reach the camp of the enemy, being directed by Col. Vrooman to return the same night if possible. After having traveled some 2 or 3 miles, affiant and his party missed their way by reason of the darkness of the night and were obliged to lay by till the next morning, when they resumed their march and reached the place at which the enemy were encamped about 9 o'clock. Affiant and his party came within a few steps of the camp of the Indians before they discovered any sign, in consequence of a rise of ground. That before their campfires, there was a great parcel of meat, stuck round about on spears or sticks roasting, and not an Indian there. They had gone down the hill some distance to an old waste field to gather (as affiant supposes) rasp or black berries. On discovering the enemy's camp affiant's chosen few immediately deserted him and fled to a man.

Affiant feeling himself bound to comply with the orders received from his Col., or at all events not to return until he had made some further effort to discover the strength of the enemy, went off some small distance from the encampment, and lay concealed in some bush near a place, where he supposed the Indians would pass in returning to their camp, by the way of an old trail. After being there a little while, affiant heard some noise in the leaves and looked behind, or rather to one side and discovered an Indian alone, approaching very near affiant, and making towards the camp, but coming from a different quarter from which affiant expected and entirely to one side of the trail, he came very near before affiant discovered him. Affiant being but poorly concealed and knowing from the direction of the camp, for which the Indian was evidently making, that he would certainly pass within a few feet of affiant and that it would be, impossible for him to remain undiscovered to the Indian. Affiant therefore instantly determined to shoot him, as the best and perhaps only means of escape, although the danger and great hazard to his life attended him either way, as the main body of the Indians, must in all probability be very near, as (before stated) they had left their meat roasting before their fires, to which they would of course soon return. Affiant rose from his squatting position to his feet unperceived by the Indian, as the Indian was coming up a little rise within 18 or 20 feet of affiant, about half the length of his body being exposed to affiant. Affiant shot him through the breast; the Indian fell and was dead in an instant. Affiant seeing that the Indian had a beautiful English tusee, such as (from information affiant received) the English were in the habit of presenting to the chief warriors and captains of their savage allies, to stimulate them to greater action, in their murderous and predatory, incursions, upon the whites, determined to make himself master of that. From the circumstance of his having his gun and of his having so many silver ornaments, about him, affiant is confident he was an Indian chief and probably the commander of the party. One of the principal silver ornaments, affiant also took a fancy to, being a large one that bound his hair growing immediately on the crown of his head, being cylindrical and so fastened that it was not easily disengaged from the hair, affiant with his knife severed it from the Indian's head hair and all together with a little of the skin, which was accidental affiant being in great haste. Affiant put off at full speed in the direction to the fort and when he had run about 300 yards or more, he heard the Indians setting their dogs on his trail, that he ran on until the first crossing of a small stream on his route, that empties into Cobleskill, after crossing which he heard the dogs at some distance back coming on his trail. When he came to the 2nd crossing of said stream, he ran up some distance in the stream to prevent them following him further.

After he left the stream, he ran up a bottom about two miles, when he took to a ridge, at this time he heard the dogs again, and supposing them to be on his trail, (it somewhat alarmed him; recollecting well his former scrape with dogs) but which affiant afterwards learned was the trail of his deserting companions, the dogs at the 2nd crossing aforesaid, taking theirs and at this place affiant passing near thereto and hearing the dogs was deceived and the better to enable 'affiant to escape the Indians and dogs. Affiant pulled off his clothes, except pantaloons and moccasins and threw them behind a log and then ran on until he reached the fort, where he arrived safely and sometime before his comrades arrived, who reported affiant dead, as they were within hearing of affiant's fire at the Indian aforesaid and supposed that it was affiant that was shot at.

It was purposely kept secret from them, that affiant had reached the fort, for the purpose of seeing what tale they would tell, and on being asked what had become of their leader, replied "that the damned fool was dead". That they had discovered the enemy's camp and that Freemoyer would not leave there with them. And before they were out of hearing, they heard the report of a rifle and they were certain he was dead. After they had finished their tale and at the expense of affiant as they supposed, affiant left his concealment, much to their astonishment and chagrin.

The place where affiant killed the Indian was afterwards, always called and known, while affiant lived in the county, by the name of Freemoyer's battle ground. Affiant served nine months as orderly sergeant. The time, for which he enlisted and received a discharge from Col. Peter Vrooman, which he has long since lost. He neglecting to take care of it as well as all other discharges he received in the service, as he considered them of no value to him whatever. That his last tour, completed affiant's service in the revolutionary struggle and made in all, which he served the United States:

1st. Tour as a private one year and one month

2nd. Tour as a private four months

3rd. Tour as orderly sergeant one year

4th. Tour as orderly sergeant eight months

5th. Tour as orderly sergeant nine months

And in all as a private one year and five months, and two years and five months as orderly sergeant.

That from the great lapse of time and consequent loss of memory, affiant does not recollect the number or names of any continental or militia regiments with which he served. Thinks the regiment in which he was placed under Col. Willet was called the 9th York Regiment, but of this is not certain.

Affiant states that he was born in the state of New York, in the county of Albany the 28th day of February 1761 and has a record of his age, that after the revolutionary war he resided in the county of Albany in the state of New York until the year 1810, when affiant removed to Washington county, state of Ohio, and when on a division of the same he fell in Monroe, near the county line, and that in the fall of 1833 he moved over the line into Washington county aforesaid where he now resides. That he has no documentary evidence by which he can prove his services and knows of no person whose testimony he can procure (unless at an expense that he is illy able to encounter) who can testify to his service.

That he is acquainted with the Reverend Charles W. Talbott, Bernard Hubbard, Aaron Price, William Hall, Anthony Sheets, David Price, Samuel T. Dorff esquire and others of his neighborhood, who can testify as to his character for veracity and their belief of his services in the revolution. He hereby relinquishes every claim whatever to a pension or annuity but the present and declares that his name is not on the pension roll of any state. Sworn to and subscribed the day and year aforesaid.

David Freemoyer

We Charles W. Talbott a clergyman residing in Washington county state of Ohio and William Clutter in the same county and state aforesaid do hereby certify that we are well acquainted with David Freymoyer who has subscribed and sworn to the preceding declaration that we believe him to be years old in last past. That he is respected and believed in the neighborhood where he resides to have been a soldier of the revolution and that we concur in that opinion. Sworn to and subscribed the day and year aforesaid.

Charles W. Talbott, Clergyman

William Clutter

And I the said justice do hereby declare my opinion after the investigation of the matter, and after putting the several interrogatories prescribed by the war department; that the above named applicant was a revolutionary soldier and served as he states; and I the said justice further certify that it appears to me that Charles W. Talbott, who has signed the preceding certificate, is a clergyman resident in the county of Washington and state aforesaid and that William Clutter who has also signed the same is a resident in the said county and state aforesaid and is a creditable person and that their statement is entitled to credit; and I the said justice do further certify that after having personally examined the body of the above named applicant that he bares scars corresponding with those stated in his declaration to have been received in the revolutionary war, strongly evidencing the truth of those statements and I the said justice do further certify that the above named applicant resides some 32 or 33 miles from the courthouse of his said county and from old age and bodily infirmity he the said applicant is unable to travel to the court house of his county aforesaid given under my hand and seal in and for said county of Washington and state of Ohio the day and year first above written.


Thos. FergusonJ. Peace

The State of Ohio

Washington County

I, George Dunlevy, clerk of the court of common pleas within and for said county, do hereby certify that the foregoing contains the original proceeding before Thomas Ferguson, a justice of the peace in and for Newport township in said county, in the matter of the application of David Freemoyer for a pension, and that the foregoing signature purporting to be the signature of said justice of the peace, is genuine.

In testimony whereof, I have hereunder set my seal of said court, at Marietta in said county, this sixteenth day of August, anyo domini one thousand and eight hundred and thirty four.


Geo. Dunlevy, clerk


Apr Third raid on Cherry Valley. 79 Indians and two tories burn the deserted fort, and all buildings still standing - the town ceases to exist. May 21 Sir John Johnson raids the valley. His force burns every building except the church in Caughnawaga. Legend has it that Sir John returns to Johnson Hall to recover the family silver he had buried there prior to his flight to Canada. July A force of Mohawks and Senecas burn the Oneida castle. The Oneidas finally pay the price for siding with the Americans at Oriskany and for their continuing support of the rebel cause. The Oneidas flee to Fort Stanwix for protection. Oct The Burning of The Valleys.A two pronged raiding force sweeps down into the Mohawk and Scoharie Valleys. Sir John Johnson leads a force from Oswego; Maj. Christopher Carleton's party comes south from Fort. St. Johns. 02 Johnson's raiding force leaves Oswego. His troops consist of men from the 8th, 34th, and 84th regiments, his Royal Greens, Rangers,Artillery and Indians totaling about 600 men. 17 Johnson's raiders arrive outside the walls of the Upper Fort at Scoharie. They burn outlying farms, then swing around the fort to attack the next defense - the Middle Fort. The severely under garrisoned Middle Fort faces a seige; according to legend, Johnson sends out a parley flag to demand surrender. The flag bearer is fired upon by frontiersman Timothy Murphy. This happens three times. The legend concludes that Johnson finds the resistance too strong, and abandons the seige.

David Freemoyer...

His personal experiences
in the militia during the
American Revolution

©2000 by Jerod Rosman

David Freemoyer, born in 1761 in Albany County, New York, enlisted in the militia at age 17 from his home on Cobleskill Creek. David was involved in three different engagements during the War for Independence and three more at Middle Fort on the Schoharie Creek after the incident related here. In 1810 David moved to Washington County, Ohio. In 1838, aged 77, he submitted a detailed legal deposition describing his experiences which accompanied his application to the Federal Government for a pension. He received a pension, but his deposition disappeared into Group 15 of the Records of the Veteran's Administration. In 1980 it was discovered and published in "The Revolution Remembered" by John C. Dann, University of Chicago Press, printed in 1980 as part of Clements Library BiCentennial Studies. Edited excerpts of the deposition have been used here to tell his story in a narrative manner rather than in the legalese of Freemoyer's deposition.

Freemoyer's Experiences with Lieutenant Boyd and Timothy Murphy

In June 1779, after serving thirteen months, Freemoyer was discharged from the militia. In late June, he heard a campaign was being mounted against the Six Nations of Indians, and he quickly volunteered. David states he was placed under a Captain or Major Parr, commander of a company of rangers in the Continental troops. He marched from Fort Clinton to join Colonel Butler's Regiment at what was then called the Middle Fort on Schoharie Creek. He then marched by way of Cobleskill Creek on to Cherry Valley and Otsego Lake. The group was then joined by General James Clinton and a large complement of the American army.

Finding the water too low in the outlet river of the lake to float their supply boats downstream to Tioga Point, General Clinton ordered a dam built across the mouth of the lake. Lake water soon rose to the height of the dam. Clinton rallied his boats and men and a passage was quickly opened in the dam raising the river high enough to float the army down to Tioga Point.

A few days later they were joined by General Sullivan, commander of the expedition, and his brigades. The two divisions advanced up what was then called the Cayuga or western branch of the Susquehanna River. They were now in Indian country. During their march, they encountered a few small groups of the enemy, routed them, but found the main body collected near Newtown. Indians and Tories defended Newtown well. Freemoyer reports stubborn resistance, but Sullivan's army prevailed. Indians and Tories escaped across Cayuga River and headed for Cayuga (Conesus) Lake.
At 11PM that evening, General Sullivan dispatched Lieutenant Boyd, Timothy Murphy, David Freemoyer and twenty men, including two friendly Indians, (Chiefs Hanyerry and Jehoiakum), as guides. He sent the group ahead to see if there were any of the enemy laying in ambush in a large cedar swamp on the opposite side of the Lake.

From this point on, readers may find Freemoyer's account of the September 13, 1779, attack on Lt. Boyd and his group departing from accepted accounts by most historians. (See "The Fatal Ambition of Lt. Thomas Boyd" <Boyd.htm>) Although there were dozens of journals of men in the Sullivan expedition, none survive of anyone who accompanied Boyd's group. Most were killed. Other accounts were recorded after the fact, and they both support and contradict Freemoyers account of the "Grove Land Massacre". Most significant is the fact that Garret Putnam, brother of the slain John Putnam, was the man most writers report as escaping with Tim Murphy, not David Freemoyer. Freemoyer's name appears neither on lists of men sent with Boyd nor those who survived the skirmish. These are questions likely never to be answered.

Their orders were to cross over (which they did on rafts made of cedar poles tied together with leatherwood bark) and examine the banks along. If they found no enemy, Boyd's orders were to penetrate the swamp and go through. The swamp was only a quarter to one-half mile wide. They then were to mount a certain high knob a quarter mile or so beyond the swamp and lie concealed during the next day. They were to watch for movements of the enemy, and on the next night return to General Sullivan's camp.

David reports they crossed, went through the swamp without encountering any of the enemy, and did lie concealed the next day and the following night. Freemoyer says Boyd refused to obey orders and return to Sullivan the second night. Every man in the group objected to waiting and traveling during the day, but Boyd wouldn't budge. He claimed scouts had been out all the day before without seeing any enemy and there were no Indians there! Freemoyer claims Boyd was urged by everyone of the danger of returning by day in case any of the enemy was lying in wait. If they were "... between them and our crossing, we must certainly be destroyed". Still insisting there were no Indians or enemy there, at eight o'clock the lieutenant started his detachment into the swamp, marching single file. Timothy Murphy and Freemoyer led the way and Lieutenant Boyd brought up the rear of the column.
The path led directly through the enemy in ambush who had discovered their trail the day before and expected them to return. They were always being watched. Joseph Brant had prepared one of his perfect ambushes.

The firing started at the rear of the column followed by firing from both sides of the trail along two lines they had formed on each side of the path. The detachment was completely surrounded and hemmed in by the enemy, and at the mercy of their crossfire.

As soon as Freemoyer and Murphy, heard the first shot, they dropped and lay flat on the ground. They lay still, motionless, playing dead until the firing had nearly ceased. Both then sprang to their feet and started to run. Fortunately, the morning was foggy, and smoke from the firing obscured both men. They escaped through the enemy lines unhurt. David recalls running into and knocking down several Indians as they broke through. The men kept together and decided to run around the lake, a distance of about ninety-two miles, to return to General Sullivan. They knew they could not escape by going back the way they came by recrossing the river. The Indians would be on them before they could leave the shore.

Within four or five miles of their run, both men were attacked by five large dogs the Indians had set after them. Three of the dogs were trained to bite and rip. The other two lay back and bayed, letting the Indians know they had cornered the men. Two dogs jumped on Murphy and before he could kill them with his tomahawk, he was lacerated and bitten severely. Freemoyer was grabbed by the third dog, but was not prepared to beat him off. David had lost his tomahawk when he dropped down to avoid the fire from the ambush. Also, he and Murphy had agreed not to fire and give their positions away. Freemoyer was left with a small, thin case knife with a sharp point.

The dog sprang at David, his jaws closing on the fleshy part of the thigh near his crotch. He bit hard into the flesh. David struck him repeatedly with the small knife and his fist but his effort had little effect. He did get the dog to release his thigh, but it was torn severely. The dog struck again, sinking his fangs deep into Freemoyer's leg by the side of the bone. Losing his hold on the leg, the dog sprang into the air and closed his jaws on David's throat. Freemoyer grabbed the dog's throat with both hands choking him as hard as he could. Gasping for air, the dog finally dropped to the ground leaving deep bite marks in David's throat. Freemoyer made an underhanded thrust at the dog's belly, striking him low and penetrating his intestines. Nearly exhausted, Freemoyer ripped the dog open across to the backbone releasing his entrails. The dog made another strike at Freemoyer's neck, but wounded and exhausted, he only reached his chest, inflicting a wound three to four inches long. The dog then fell to the ground and died. Murphy, having finished the two

Murphy then noticed about forty naked Indians carrying tomahawks less than fifty yards away. Murphy also recognized Captain Yoke, (Jehiaokum) a friendly Stockbridge Indian of his acquaintance. There didn't seem to be a rifle among them. They apparently left their rifles behind to make better speed following the dogs. Both Murphy and Freemoyer were wounded by the dogs, exhausted by their run and dog fight, and with two dogs still worrying them. With little choice, the two ran off at top speed to reach the army they had left days earlier. David claims they ran at least fifteen miles from their encounter with the Indians before they stopped and rested, certain they had left their pursuers far behind. At this point they shot the two dogs, who were still in pursuit.
After resting, the two men continued on until early evening, when they stepped off the path to rest again and see if any of the enemy would pass. In a short time, they saw Captain Yoke passing by, alone. Hailing him, they stayed with him until Captain Yoke led them back to where they had left General Sullivan encamped arriving at the campsite at eight o'clock the next morning.

General Sullivan was gone. He and his army had already crossed the river. Murphy, Freemoyer and Captain Yoke built a log raft, crossed the river and caught up with the army just as they were collecting the bodies of Lieutenant Boyd's patrol for burial. Freemoyer states that they also "put together" the body of Lieutenant Boyd "which the enemy had severed in five pieces - the head cut off, the body then split in twain, and then each half cut into again." (NOTE: Most historians report the Captured Boyd was taken along with Sergeant Harper to Chennusio where he was questioned by Walter Butler and then both men were given to the women to do as they wished. Most reports have the army finding the two bodies some time after they first found the bodies of the patrol. Freemoyer makes no mention of Sergeant Harper.)

It was here that Murphy and Freemoyer finally had their wounds dressed. The side of David's leg had a serious wound that caused him hard pain as they travelled. To ease the pain Freemoyer shot a squirrel and put the animals brains directly on the open wound, holding them in place with it's skin. Freemoyer's wounds disabled him to the point where he had to ride on a pack horse for the next six days.

Note: This story is based upon a legal deposition made by Daniel Freemoyer in 1834 to accompany his application for a pension based upon his service in the Revolutionary war. It was found in the National Archives, part of Record 15 of the Records of the Veteran's Administration. It appears in "The Revolution Remembered", Eyewitness Accounts of the War for Independence", edited by John C. Dann, published in 1980 by the University of Chicago Press. Comparisons with other accounts of Boyd's ill-fated patrol are based upon W.L. Stone's "Life of Brant" 1838 and Allan Eckert's "Wilderness War" 1978.




Hostile Indian attacks on American settlers force General Washington to send General Sullivan's army of 5000 men to invade the Six Nations.

On September 11, 1779, Gen. Sullivan and his guides argue over the location of their objective, while his men are busy building a bridge for his artillery to cross the Conesus Lake inlet. Sullivan's map said that Genesee Castle, the principal Seneca village in the area, was on the east bank of the river, the guides say the west bank. General Sullivan instructs Lt. Boyd to take four riflemen and an Indian guide and during the night locate the village and report back with the best route to it. Contrary to orders, Boyd took twenty eight men including guides. They march west, and find an abandoned village just east of the river. Boyd decides to wait here for the army to join him, but when he is fired on by a few Indians, he thinks that it would be safer to rejoin the army. Returning back up the same trail they see more Indians, who lure them into an ambush. Mistaking Boyd's men for Sullivan's army the Indians attack, killing 18 members of the out-numbered party. These Indians were part of a much larger force waiting to attack the army as it passed by the ravines where they were concealed. The main party of Indians, hearing the fierce fighting at their rear, believe that they are surrounded and abandon their positions to escape along the river, returning to Genesee Castle. When they finally learn that the fight was with a small scouting party the element of surprise is gone, and it is impossible to reassemble the warriors. A survivor of Boyd's party made his way back to Sullivan, who ordered an immediate advance. The few warriors who did offer resistance were quickly killed and the remainder of the march to the Genesee Castle went unmolested. The sacrifice of Boyd's scouting party most likely saved Sullivan's army. The army entered the village on the 14th and found the bodies of Boyd and Parker.

Lieutenant Thomas Boyd and Sergeant Michael Parker had been taken prisoner and moved to Genesee Castle. There they had been questioned by Joseph Brant, a Mohawk Indian with an English name, John Butler, an American loyal to the crown (both known for savage attacks on American settlements) and Chief Little Beard of the Senecas. According to some reports they did not talk, but Butler's report gave accurate details of Sullivan's troops and their movements. Bryant and Butler then leave, giving the two soldiers to the Indians.

The two were taken to a large oak tree, today called the Torture Tree and stripped naked. They were then whipped until their backs were covered with welts and bruises. Next the nails were pulled from each finger and toe. They cut off their right ears, then their noses, then their tongues. Their right eyes were gouged from their sockets, and left hanging. They mutilated their genitals until they were attached to their bodies by only foot long strands of flesh. In spite of these inhuman and revolting tortures, the design was to keep the victims alive and conscious as long as possible.

The final acts of cruelty came when the two men had their abdomens cut open and their intestines cut from the stomach. The severed end was fastened to the tree and the men were driven around the tree, their intestines being pulled out as they went. Their hearts were ripped from their chests and, and they were finally beheaded. Boyd's head was placed on a spear and used to lead a dance around the tree. The night of torture finally ended with the approach of Sullivan's army. Lieutenant Boyd's partially skinned head was found on a log, Sergeant Parker's head was never found. The bodies were buried at the junction of two small creeks, about 50 feet from the tree. General Sullivan ordered the complete destruction of Genesee Castle and all of it's orchards and crops. When the indians returned they said there was 'not even enough to keep a child one day from perishing from hunger."

This was not the end of Boyd and Parker's story. In 1807 robbers looted the graves, taking clothing as relics. In 1830 the grave was opened again and four Revolutionary War, U S Army uniform buttons were found, authenticating the site. In July of 1841 Professor Samuel Treat gave a speech saying that it was shameful that there was no monument to honor these soldiers. On August 19, six canal boats filled with five military companies, invited guests and journalists went down the Genesee Valley Canal to Cuylerville to bring the remains back to Rochester's new Mount Hope Cemetery. Boyd's men, buried in Groveland were also brought back to be buried in honor on Patriots Hill. Emotions were so high that the descendants of the 1807 grave robbers returned what had been taken. With even more ceremony in Rochester the wooden urn containing Boyd's and Parker's remains, and the wooden sarcophagus containing the massacre victims were placed next to a temporary wooden monument in Mount Hope. The very next day the Democrats accused the Whigs of burying bear bones, instead of the remains of Boyd and Parker. This controversy raged for years, inspite of the fact that those at the Cuylerville watched as the grave was opened. Meanwhile the wooden urn and sarcophagus sat on the ground, exposed to Rochester's weather, until a cemetery caretaker saw the bones lying on the ground, and buried then in potter's field in 1864. Members of the Irondequoit chapter of the Daughter's of the American Revolution researching the Boyd & Parker story in 1903, found the remains in potter's field and they were reburied, again. The site marked with a marked with a granite boulder and a bronze plaque.

|Glimpses of the Past
People, Places, and Things in Letchworth Park History

Boyd - Parker Memorial
Sullivan's Monument

These two historic markers exist within the jurisdiction of the Genesee State Park Region but receive little public notice. In the event interest in the Revolutionary War surges there may well be more focus on these two features. The Boyd Parker Memorial is located on the south side of NYS Route 20A east of the hamlet of Cuylerville in Livingston County. The small public park is managed by the Geneseo Kiwanis by virtue of an agreement with the Park Region. Sullivan's Monument is so remote in the hills above Conesus Lake that it is virtually ignored. This is primarily because it is off the road and stands on a parcel of land sixty feet on a side. It is a rather plain stone obelisk and commemorates the march by General Sullivan on orders from George Washington to attack the Native Americans who were loyal to the British during that time of war for independence.

Two of Sullivan's men, Lieutenant Thomas Boyd and Sergeant Michael Parker were captured by the British and Senecas at a Groveland battle site during Sullivan's march and tortured and killed at the present day park location. The huge white oak at the park is reputed to be the actual "torture tree".

Our interest in these two sites is simply that William Pryor Letchworth was part of the effort that preserved these two sites as important historically as part of the rich fabric of development of Western New York. Mr. Letchworth was an active member in the Livingston County Historical Society as well as the Buffalo Historical Society and we owe much to his devotion to preserving a myriad of reminders of the past. Mr. Letchworth also served on the Wyoming County Monument Committee to honor Civil War veterans and one result of the committee work is the Monument at the intersection of Court and Main Streets in Warsaw. He also played an important role in the creation of the Dragoon Monument in the Park.

Tom Breslin

all rights reserved by Tom Cook and Tom Breslin

Hear Ye, Hear Ye - Rochester Genealogical Society, Volume 1; Number 1, Spring 1980

The following has been abstracted from a paper entitled, The Life and Parentage of Lieut. Thomas Boyd who was Massacred near Cuylerville, September 13, 1779, written by W.P. Boyd and appeared in the published minutes for the thirteenth annual meeting of the Livingston County Historical Society held at Livonia, Tuesday, January 8, 1889. John Boyd lived near the city of Kilmarnock, County Argle in Scotland and was married to Dorcas Bennett. About 1745/50 at least three of his sons arrived in New York City. Soon after the arrival the brothers separated, Ebenezer took up residence near Rye, New York in the County of Westchester. In 1763/4 he married Sarah Merritt. With the onslaught of the Revolutionary War, his wife became a cook for General Washington and he was commissioned a Captain. Ebenezer was associated with the capture of the spy, Major André, at the close of the War, he moved to Kent, Putnam Co., New York and was the first settler at the place that now bears his name, Boyd's Corners. He died there on June 29, 1792. The second brother (name unknown) traveled to Albany, New York and settled there. Here tradition has it, he was known as General Boyd and lived to the age 114 years. The Third brother, John went to Orange Co., New York and thence to Washingtonville, Northumberland Co., Penn. here he married _____ Hawthorn, he died young leaving a wife and 4 children. John, William, Thomas and Mary (b. 1763). The three sons went to War. John, the eldest, was captured by Indians and presumed dead. William, the second son, died on the field at Brandywine, Sep. 11,1777. Thomas, the third son, who was born in 1757 in Washingtonvil1e, was with Benedict Arnold on the march from Maine to Quebec in Sept. 1775. On the assault on the British Works he was wounded and captured but was shortly exchanged. After returning home in the winter of 1776 he re-enlisted as a sargeant and was present at the battle of Stillwater Oct. 7, 1777, and at Gen. Burgoyne's surrender on Oct. 14. On Jan. 14, 1778 he was promoted to Lieutenant and participated in the Battle of Manmouth, June 28, 1778. In the fall of 1778 troops, that included Thomas, were sent to protect the settlement of Schoharie, N.Y. from Indians and Tory depredations. While there, Thomas, became involved with one Cornelia Becker, daughter of Bartholomew Becker, a prominent and respected settler of the community, Soon after Thomas's death she gave birth to a baby girl and Thomas was the reputed father. (The child was named Catherine and grew to adulthood and became the wife of Martin Vrooman of Schoharie, N.Y.) Ordered from Schoharie, Thomas went with Gen. Clinton to join forces with Sullivan's Army in laying waste to Indian crops and villages in N.Y. State. The two groups joined and later camped near Foot's Corners in the Town of Conesus. Location of an Indian village, west of Conesus Lake was in question, so Sullivan sent out a scouting party on the night of September 12, 1779 to pin-point its' position for attack. Leaving about 11 o'clock that night, Lieutenant Thomas Boyd led 26 men and 2 Indians out on the scouting venture. After reconnoitering, the party returning in the early morning, ran into a large body of Indians, less than a mile from their camp. Many of Thomas's comrades were killed. A very few made it back to Sullivan's camp. Timothy Murphy was one of those. Thomas and Michael Barker were captured, tortured and finally killed. Just before the army encamped that night, Paul Sanborn (afterwards a resident of Conesus for many years) found the headless corpses of Boyd and Parker. The bodies were buried that night under a wild plum tree near the junction of 2 small streams. Today, a small park beside the highway from Geneseo to Cuylerville, encompasses the area and the tree at which Boyd was so brutally tortured on that Monday, September 13, 1779.

ED. NOTE: The two men's remains were brought to Rochester for burial shortly after toe establishment of the Revolutionary Hill Mount Hope Cemetery in 1841.

As of Jan. 1st 1889 the oldest person living in the town of (Conesus the longest, who was born out of the town, was Hiram Boyd (who came here in 1821) aged 92.


1889 Bunnell & Orerdorf Book Presss, Advertiser Office, Dansville, NY


The Life and Parentage of Lieut. Thomas Boyd who was Massacred near Cuylerville, New York, Sept. 13, 1779.

ACROSS the ocean, among the green, rough and rocky hills of Scotland, near the present city of Kilmarnock, in the county of Ayr, at the beginning of the seventeenth century was born a humble highlander by the name of John Boyd. His ancestors were descended from the famous royal family of servants. In after years he chose for his companion in life, an estimable lady by the name of Dorcus Bennett. The number of their children tradition does not give. But among them were three brothers whose names were Ebenezer, John and one other whose name I have failed to learn, who came to New York city about 1745 or '50.

Whether these brothers came here as exiles alone, or whether their father's family came with them across the ocean is a blank in our family history. But at this time, among the Boyds of Scotland was William Boyd the fourth Earl of Kilmarnock, then the owner of the Dean Castle of that place, which had been the home of the Boyds of that country in the direct line for over 700 years. He had now forsaken his country and joined the standard of Prince Charles Stuart in his fatal attempt to recover the throne of Scotland in 1745, was captured at the battle of Drummossie Moor (Culluden), near Inverness, April 16, 1746, while fighting for his Prince, was tried for treason, found guilty along with Lord Balmerino and Lord Cromarty, and executed at Tower Hill, London, August 18 of the same year.

Soon after the arrival of the three brothers in New York, they became separated. Ebenezer went into Westchester county of this state, and took up his residence near the present village of Rye.

Here in 1763 or '64 he married a lady by the name of Sarah Merritt, and was living at the time of the breaking out of the revolutionary war on what was called the "neutral grounds." This territory becoming overrun by cowboys and tories, making it unsafe for his family, he removed them to the headquarters of Gen. Washington. Here the wife became a cook for the General, and her husband was given a captain's commission of a company of riflemen in the defense of his country. His name is now honored and associated with the capture of Major Andre, the latter being intercepted the night before his capture by one of Captain

Boyd's sentinels while on a scout near Crowpond and was taken before Boyd and rigidly questioned. But the pass he bore from Gen. Arnold, who was Boyd's commander, saved him until the next day.

From here Ebenezer, at the close of the war went to Kent, Putnam county, and was the first settler at a place that now bears his name, "Boyd's Corners" where he died June 29th, 1792.

The second brother, whose name and history I have been unable to get, went to Albany, NY., and settled. Here I have been informed he was known as Gen. Boyd, and is said to have lived to the great age of 114 years.

The third brother was named John. After leaving his brothers at New York city he went into Orange county of the same state, and from there to Washingtonville, Northumberland Co., Pa. Here he soon afterwards married a lady by the name of Hawthorn, and died young leaving a widow with four children, whose Christian names were John, William, Thomas and Mary. After the father's death, the dutiful mother kept her little family together in their humble home in a new country until the breaking out of the revolutionary war, when the three boys enlisted in the defence of their country. On the morning of their departure the three brothers left the lowly cottage together, yet they had not proceeded far from the same when the patriotic mother standing in the door filled with emotion called them back. "My dear boys," said she, "I have one word more I wish to say before you leave me, and that is, whatever situation you may be placed in the face of the enemy in the defence of your country, always do your duty and never let cowardice cross your path." For a short time the three boys were together and then they became separated. John the oldest, joined a company of Pennsylvania scouts and was sent out upon a scout against the Indians. His party was captured by the savages, and being the last ever heard of him, he is supposed to have been slain by the red men. William, the second son, joined the army of Gen. Washington, and while fighting by the side of his brother fell upon the memorable battle field of Brandywine, Sept. 11, 1777. Mary Boyd, the only daughter, was born at Washingtonville in 1763.

Thomas Boyd, the youngest son, whom fate seemed to have reserved for Indian torture, was born at the old homestead at Washingtonville, Pa., in 1757. He was a young man of ordinary height, strongly built, fine looking, sociable and agreeable in all his manners, which gained for him many friends wherever he went. His younger days were spent at home, and after leaving the same the first account we have of him is in connection with Benedict Arnold's famous march through the pine forest from Maine to Quebec. This was in September 1775, when Gen. Arnold set out upon this enterprise. He had with him 1100 men. They first went by water to the Kennebec river in Maine. Here they purchased 200 batteaux which were long, flat-bottom boats for shallow water. The current of this river was very rapid, the bottom rocky and the navigation often interrupted by falls. Sometimes they were obliged to carry their boats on their shoulders or drag them up rapids with ropes. They had steep precipices to climb, vast shady forests to pass under, and quagmires to wade through. Also deep valleys to traverse, where the pine trees were tossing their heads in the stormy winds, and where the river was rushing and foaming over the rocks with a noise like that of the ocean. They were sometimes a whole day in traveling four or five miles with their baggage lashed upon their backs and axes in hand to hew a road through the wilderness. Some of Thomas's comrades at last died from mere fatigue. Many others became sick and perished, and all suffered greatly for want of food. By the time this little band had reached the source of the Dead river, a branch of the Kennebec, their provisions were almost exhausted, and what remained were damaged-as well as their ammunition-by water, which had found its way into the batteaux during the passage. The soldiers, it is said, at last began to kill and eat the lean dogs they had with them and even this food was esteemed a great luxury. They arrived at last on the mountains between the Kennebec and Chaudiere and found their way down the latter to Point Levy, opposite of Quebec, where they arrived November 9. The people here were as much amazed as if so many ghosts had come among them, which indeed many of them more resembled than living beings. Here Thomas took active part in the assault upon the British works, Dec. 31, 1775, and was wounded and taken prisoner, but soon afterwards exchanged. After his release he returned to his home in Pennsylvania, where in the latter part of the winter of 1776 he again enlisted as a sergeant in Capt. Stephen Bayard's company and was transferred to Capt. Matthew Smith's company in the 1st Pennsylvania regiment in the following November. He was present at the battle of Stillwater, October 7, 1777, and witnessed the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne, Oct. 17 following. On the 14th of January preceding he was made a first lieutenant in his regiment and was present at the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778.

At the beginning of this year, 1778, the Indians and tories began to make raids and commit depredations upon the frontier settlements of Schoharie. In the fall he was sent under the command of Major Pear, who commanded three companies of Morgan's celebrated rifle corps under the command of Capts. Long, Pear and Simpson, for the protection of the inhabitants of this place. Here Thomas Boyd remained nearly a year in helping to defend the frontier settlement against these Indian and tory depredations, or until the summer and fall of 1779.

Among these Indians were the Senecas living in the western part of the state of New York, or in other words upon the Genesee flats, in the town of Leicester in this county. The murdering by these Indians of the white settlers became so frequent, an army was raised and sent into their midst in the summer and fall of 1779 to bring them into submission. Among that number was Michael Simpson's rifle company, to which Thomas Boyd belonged in Col. Butler's regiment. Before Thomas left Schoharie and while residing here, there was a sad scene transacted which left a stain upon his noble life. While here he became acquainted and paid his address to a young lady by the name of Miss Cornelia Becker, a daughter of Bartholomew Becker a prominent and highly respected settler of this place.

Soon after Thomas's death, she gave birth to a daughter of which he was the reputed father. In the forenoon when the troops under Col. Butler were preparing to leave Schoharie to join Gen. Clinton's forces at Springfield, the head of Otsego lake, Miss Becker whom Thomas had promised to marry, learning that he was about to leave, rushed to the encamping grounds in a state of mind bordering on madness, and approached her lover a short distance from his command, caught hold of his arm, and in tears besought him by the most tender entreaties to marry her before leaving Schoharie. Thomas endeavored to put her off by promises, she, doubting his intentions, looked him squarely in the face, and in a decisive way, with trembling lips said to him, if he went off without marrying her, she hoped and prayed to the great God of heaven that he would be tortured and cut to pieces by the savages. In the midst of this unpleasant scene, which had compelled the troops to be waiting for their lieutenant, Col. Butler rode up and reprimanded Thomas for causing the delay. It mortified Thomas to be seen by his superior officer, importuned by a girl, and touched the pride of Thomas, and flying into a passion lie instantly drew his sword and pushed the poor broken hearted girl from him, and with it as if intending to make a thrust, threatened to stab her if she did not instantly leave him. The child of Miss Becker grew up to womanhood and was named Catherine. She was a young lady of fine qualities and highly respected wherever she went. She afterwards became the wife of one of the settlers named
Martinus Vrooman of Schoharie, N. Y.

Thomas after leaving Miss Becker immediately joined his company and they set out for Springfield, and marched from here to the foot of the Otsego lake. After remaining here until the 9th of August 1779, he went with the army of Gen. Clinton from the foot of the lake to join Gen. Sullivan at Tioga. Nothing more is known of Thomas until Gen. Clinton had got within 20 or 30 miles of Gen. Sullivan. At this place lie was met by Gen. Poor, who had been sent from Tioga by the latter to reinforce him in case of an unexpected attack from the enemy. Gen. Clinton wishing to inform Gen. Sullivan of the safe arrival of Gen. Poor's command, selected Thomas and placed under him nine men to carry the message. Thomas and his party left the camp of Gens. Clinton and Poor at the Indian town of Owego on the night of the 19th of August, at 11 o'clock, and arrived at the camp of Gen. Sullivan early on the morning of the 2Oth. After delivering his message here Thomas remained guest of Captain Wm. Sproat, aide de-camp and brigadier major Of the 3d brigade., commanded by Gen. Hand until his company arrived, when lie rejoined the same again.

We have no more account of Thomas from the time of the army leaving Tioga Thursday Aug. 26, 1779, until the 12th of September following. In whatever was done by this little army, including the battle of Newtown, near the present site of Elmira, N. Y., Thomas must have taken part. The morning of the 12th of September found them encamped near the present site of Honeoye, N. Y. When the army woke this morning it was to find it had been raining which hindered them from moving until noon. They then set out in the rain and wandered through a dense forest for nearly 11 miles. In doing this they were obliged to cross a miry piece of ground at the foot of the Hemlock lake and to climb the steep hill,
called the Hemlock Hill, which detained them to such an extent, instead of reaching the Indian town at the head of the Conesus lake, as they intended to do, the night overtook them as they had reached the level piece of ground west of Foot's Corners in the town of Conesus, and here they were obliged to encamp for the night. Soon after camping here, Gens. Sullivan, Poor, Hand and Maxwell met at the former's tent and began with their guides a consultation of their maps in regard to the location of the Indian town upon the Genesee. In this consultation the maps of Gen. Sullivan and the information given by the guides, disagreed. The former gave the location of the Indian town in the eastern part of the town of Mt. Morris near the old Carroll place, and the guides claimed, which was found right, that it was five miles down the Genesee river near Cuylerville. Under this situation the four officers were puzzled, and Gen. Sullivan resolved to send a scouting party immediately to locate the same, and report before daylight for the guidance of the army the next day. Also he supposed the party safe if they accomplished the journey and returned before morning, as in the night time the Indians generally sleep, and they would not be likely to run upon one of their scouting bands out on a scout. It was now nearly 11 o'clock at night when the consultation closed, and Gen. Sullivan knowing that Thomas was a young man of a courageous and daring disposition, while at the same time he was a reliable young officer, immediately dispatched a messenger with a request for him to come to his tent as he had important business for him to do. Thomas went and after a short consultation with his commander, was given orders to select four of his most trusty comrades, and to go that night the 14 miles in advance of the army in the Indian country, locate the Indian town and return before daylight. Thomas now left his General's tent, but to disobey his commander's orders, for instead of taking four he chose 26 men and two Oneida Indians, and then set out for his destination. The little band wound their way through the dense forest by the Indian trail until they had reached an Indian village on the Canaseraga, in the town of Mt. Morris, which was near the town that had been laid down upon the maps as the Genesee Castle, and they reaching the same came to that conclusion, that this was the great Seneca town that they had been sent to discover and locate which really was five miles farther down the valley upon the Genesee river. They found the town to consist of twenty-five houses deserted, although the fire was still burning in the huts. The night was far advanced and the party, quite weary, encamped for a few hours intending to ascertain at early morning the location of the supposed capitol town. It was not yet break of clay on Monday morning, the 13th of September, a day so fatal to most of the party, when Thomas accompanied by Timothy Murphy, a noted Indian fighter, stole away from their companions and entered the Indian village at hand. Here they discovered four Indians coming to the village from the west. One of them was a wounded warrior and the other an uncle to the sachem Soh-nah-so-wah. A ball from Murphy's rifle sealed the fate of the former, and the rest fled. Murphy, as it was his custom, took off the slain Indian scalp, his thirty-third trophy. The flying Indian, Thomas now was well aware, would at once make known his visit to the
enemy, and thus defeat his purpose. He therefore resolved to rejoin the army without delay. On going back to his party he dispatched two messengers to Gen. Sullivan with a report of his operations while at the same time they were directed to inform the General that the scouts would return immediately. The messengers reached Gen, Sullivan's camp early in the morning. The scouting party prepared to retrace their steps also. Hanyery, an Oneida Indian, recommended his leader to follow a different route. But Thomas unwisely disregarded the advice of his faithful and intelligent guide. The greatest caution was observed on the return march. With Hanyery in the front and Murphy in the rear, their eagle eyes fixed on each moving leaf and waving bough, they marched forward slowly with the utmost caution. When starting Thomas dispatched two more runners to the army. But they had not gone far before they returned to him and reported seeing five Indians in front. Thomas immediately pursued them and at least killed one of them whom Murphy scalped. The remainder kept in sight but out of danger as they advanced directing their course toward the main army. Five weary miles, had they thus traveled this dangerous rout in attempting to catch the fleeing Indians, and were about to descend a hill, at whose base the army of Gen. Sullivan lay. Less than a mile intervened between them and the camp and as the party began to hear the drums and noise of the advancing columns of Hand's men, and breathing a sigh of relief, they were suddenly surprised by five hundred Indians under Brant, and five hundred royalists under Butler, who were secreted in a ravine between them and the main army. The little party were at once taken to a small grove of trees. A moment was thus secured for reflection. Thomas saw at once that the only chance of escape for his men was the hazardous one of gathering-them all into a compact force, and breaking through the enemy's lines. After giving his comrades a few encouraging words, he led forward his men for the onset. In the first attempt, not one of Thomas' men fell, while their fire told fearfully upon the enemy. A second attempt to break the enemy's line was made, and seventeen of the Americans bit the dust. The firing was now so close before the brave party was destroyed, that the powder from the enemy's muskets was driven into their flesh. Though a majority now lay dead, a third onset was made and the enemy's lines were broken through, and Murphy tumbling a huge warrior in the dust who obstructed his passage-even to the merriment of his dusky companions, led forth the little band. Thomas justly supposed if any one escaped with their life, it would be Murphy, so he determined to follow him, but not being so fast a runner he was soon taken, and with him one of his men named Michael Parker who was a corporal in the 1st Pennsylvania regiment and afterwards promoted to sergeant in Thomas's company. Gen. Sullivan in his report says, "Lieut. Boyd was shot through the body at the beginning of the fight." If so this accounts for his inability to make his escape with Murphy. Thomas and his Comrade Parker were hurried forward with the retiring enemy to the vicinity of Beardstown. On finding himself a prisoner, Thomas obtained an interview with Brant, who as well as himself was a free mason. After they had exchanged the magic sign of brotherhood, Brant assured him that he should not be injured.

But soon afterwards Brant was called off on some enterprise, the prisoners were left in charge of one of the Butlers, (a half breed) who placing the prisoners on their knees before him, a warrior on each side firmly grasping their arms, a third at their back with a raised tomahawk, began to interrogate them about the purposes of General Sullivan, threatening them with savage torture if true and ready answer were not given. Thomas remembering his mother's parting words and believing the assurance of Brant ample for his safety, and too high-minded in any situation to betray his country, refused, as did Parker to any questions touching the immediate purpose of the army. The savage Butler was now true to his threats, and when the prisoners peremptorily refused to answer he handed them over to Little Beard and his warriors, who were already full of vindictiveness. The prisoners were seized, stripped and bound to trees, and severely whipped with prickly ash boughs. The Indians commenced a series of horrid cruelties directed especially toward Thomas. When all was ready Little Beard lifted his hatchet, stained with recent blood, and with steady aim sent it whistling through the air and in an instant it quivered within a hair's thickness of Thomas's head. The younger Indians were now permitted to follow the chief's example, and from right, front and left their bright tomahawks cleaved the air and trembled above the unflinching persons of the victims. Wearied at length of this work a single blow severed Parker's head from his body, and mercifully ended his misery. Poor Thomas however was reserved for a worse fate. An incision was made in his abdomen and a severed intestine was fastened to a tree. He was then scourged with prickly ash boughs, and compelled to move around until the pain was so great that he could go no farther. Again pinioned his mouth was enlarged with a knife, his nails dug out, his tongue cut away, his ears severed from his head, his nose hewn off and thrust into his mouth, his eyes dug out and the flesh cut from his shoulder, and then sinking in death after their enormities, he was decapitated and his disfigured head after being partly skinned raised by the frenzied savages upon a sharpened pole and a knife stuck into body when it was found. Just at night as the army was preparing to encamp where the execution of Thomas and his companion took place, Paul Sanborn, afterwards for many years a resident of Conesus, then a private soldier on the extreme right of Gen. Clinton's brigade, was moving with his detachment, and, as it wheeled around in the direction of the village he discovered the headless corpse of Thomas. The blood was yet oozing from it, so recently had the body been freed from its tormentors. Leaping over this, Sanborn alighted beside that of Parker, as it laid in the long grass. He at once made known his discovery, when the remains were placed under guard of Captain Michael Simpson's rifle company, and that evening the mutilated bodies and disfigured heads of the heroic men were buried with military honors under a wild plum tree, which grew near the junction of two small streams, named at a great meeting in Cuylerville in 1841, Boyd and Parker Creek. The heads of these two men were at once recognized by their companions to whom Thomas's features, though partially skinned, were so familiar, and Parker was identified beyond doubt from a scar on his face and his broken front teeth. Major Parr who commanded the rifle regiment to which Thomas's company belonged, was present at the burial and John Sullivan of Groveland then a private in Capt. Simpson's company, assisted on the occasion.

The following Historical items are from the town of Conesus, Jan. 1st, 1889:

The oldest person now living in the town is Jonathan Wilkinson of Conesus Center, aged 8S.

The oldest woman living in Conesus who was born in the town is Mrs. Polly (Alger) Morris, the widow of the late Rev. Sylvester Morris, born in 1810.

The oldest man living in the town who was born in the town is Matthew Allen aged 72.

The oldest person living in the town the longest who was born out of the town is Hiram Boyd, came here in 1821, aged 82.

The following persons over 60 years of age have died in the town the past year : Mrs. Fanny (Stevens) Norton, widow of Seymour Norton, deceased, aged 85 years. Mrs. Durkee, aged over 8o years. Mrs. Jane (Beaty) Bayles, widow of Robert Bayles, deceased, aged 82 years. Franklin Foot, aged 77 years. Mrs. Rhoda (Curtis) Perine, widow of William Perine, deceased, age unknown. James M. Alger, aged 67 years. Willard Cole, age unknown. Mrs. Elizabeth (Gray) McNinch wife of James C. McNinch age unknown. R. F. McMillin, age unknown. Mrs. Amy (Barber) Collar, wife of Lanson Collar, aged 64.